Rubber chemicals

Pure substances

ProductAppearanceActive ingredientMelting point
(onset)
LUVOMAXX® 6PPDdark brown granulesN-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)-N’-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine50 °C
LUVOMAXX® ADPAdark brown highly viscous liquidhigh-temperature reaction product of acetone and diphenylamine- 8 °C
LUVOMAXX® BHTwhite powder2,6–di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol68 °C
LUVOMAXX® BHPlight yellow powder2,2-methylene-bis-(4-methyl-6-tert-butyl phenol)124 °C
LUVOMAXX® CDPAwhite powder4,4'-bis-(1,1-dimethylbenzyl)- diphenylamine99 °C
LUVOMAXX® DTPDbrownish flakesN,N’-ditolyl-p-phenylenediamine93 °C
LUVOMAXX® IPPDdark brown granulesN-isopropyl-N’-phenyl –p-phenylenediamine75 °C
LUVOMAXX® MBI/OCoil-coated powder2-mercaptobenzimidazole295 °C
LUVOMAXX® MMBI/OCoil-coated powder4- /5- methyl mercaptobenzimidazole270 °C
LUVOMAXX® ODPAbrownish powder4,4'-dioctyl diphenylamine85 °C
LUVOMAXX® SDPAhighly viscous amber liquidstyrenated diphenylamine- 5 °C
LUVOMAXX® TMQamber granulespolymeric 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydro-quinoline80 °C
pure-substances.pdf

Polymer-bound preparations

ProductAppearanceActive ingredientContent
(% m/m)
Binder
LUVOMAXX® IPPD GR 80
granulesN-isopropyl-N’-phenyl-p- phenylenediamine80EPDM / EVA
LUVOMAXX® MMBI GR 70
granules4 / 5-methylmercapto-benzimidazole70EPDM / EVA
polymer-bound-preparations.pdf

Dry liquid preparations

ProductAppearanceActive ingredientContent
(% m/m)
Carrier
LUVOMAXX® ADPA DL 75 C
dark brown powderreaction product of acetone and diphenylamine75Ca silicate
LUVOMAXX® SDPA DL 72 C
beige powderstyrenated diphenylamine72Ca silicate
LUVOMAXX® TNPP DL 70
white powdertris-(nonylphenyl) phosphite*70silica

* hydrolysis-protected; content of free 4-nonylphenol < 0.1%

dry-liquid-preparations.pdf

Pure substances

ProductAppearanceActive ingredientColourMelting point (onset)
Sulphenamides      
LUVOMAXX® CBSgranules/ oil-coated powderN-cyclohexyl-2 benzothiazolesulphenamideoff-white/
greyish
98 °C
LUVOMAXX® DCBS

granules/
oil-coated powder

N,N-dicyclohexyl-2-benzothiazolesulphenamidelight beige96 °C
LUVOMAXX® MBSgranulesbenzothiazyl-2-sulphenmorpholidelight yellow78 °C
LUVOMAXX® TBBSgranules/oil-coated powderN-tert-butyl-2-benzothiazolesulphenamideoff-white/
greyish
104 °C
LUVOMAXX® TBSIoil-coated powderN-tert-butyl-2-benzothiazolesulphenimideoff-white to cream137 °C

Thiazoles

    
LUVOMAXX® MBTgranules/
oil-coated powder
2-mercaptobenzothiazolelight yellow171 °C
LUVOMAXX® MBTSgranules/
oil-coated powder
dibenzothiazyldisulphidepale yellow165 °C
LUVOMAXX® ZMBTgranules/oil- coated powderzinc salt of 2-mercapto-benzothiazolelight yellow200 °C
Dithiocarbamates    
LUVOMAXX® TDECgranules/oil- coated powdertellurium diethyl dithiocarbamateorange to yellow110 °C
     
LUVOMAXX® ZBECgranules/oil- coated powderzinc dibenzyl dithiocarbamatewhite180 °C
LUVOMAXX® ZDBCgranules/oil- coated powderzinc dibutyl dithiocarbamatewhite104 °C
LUVOMAXX® ZDECgranules/oil-coated powderzinc diethyl dithiocarbamatewhite174 °C
LUVOMAXX® ZEPCgranules/oil-coated powderzinc ethyl phenyl dithiocarbamatewhite200 °C
Guanidines    
LUVOMAXX® DPGgranules/ oil coated powderdiphenylguanidineoff-white/
greyish
144 °C
LUVOMAXX® DOTG*granules/oil-coated powderdi-o-tolylguanidineoff-white/
greyish
165 °C
Dithiophosphates    
LUVOMAXX® ZDTPviscous liquidzinc dialkyl dithiophosphateyellowish-10 °C
Thiurams    
LUVOMAXX® DPTTgranules/oil- coated powderdipentamethylenethiuram tetrasulphidewhite to
light yellow
103 °C
LUVOMAXX® TBzTDgranules/oil- coated powdertetrabenzylthiuram disulphidewhite130 °C
LUVOMAXX® TETDgranules/oil- coated powdertetraethylthiuram disulphidelight yellow66 °C
LUVOMAXX® TiBTDgranules/oil- coated powdertetraisobutylthiuram disulphidewhite65 °C
LUVOMAXX® TMTDgranules/oil- coated powdertetramethylthiuram disulphidewhite142 °C
LUVOMAXX® TMTMgranules/oil- coated powdertetramethylthiuram monosulphideyellow104 °C
Thioureas    
LUVOMAXX® DETUgranules/oil- coated powderN-N'-diethyl thioureawhite74 °C
LUVOMAXX® DPTUgranules/oil- coated powderN-N'-diphenyl thioureawhite148 °C
LUVOMAXX® ETUgranules/oil- coated powderN-N'-ethylene thiourea
(2-mercaptoimidazoline)
white195 °C
Sulphur donors    
LUVOMAXX® DTDMgranules/oil- coated powder4,4’-dithiodimorpholinewhite119 °C
Amine Accelerators   
LUVOMAXX® HMTcrystal powderhexamethylene tetraminewhite> 200°C
sublimates

*alternative: pls. see LUVOMAXX® DBU DL 70

pure-substances.pdf

Polymer-bound preparations

ProductAppearanceActive ingredientContent
(% m/m)
Binder
Sulphenamides
LUVOMAXX® CBS GR 80granulesN-cyclohexyl-2 benzothiazyl- sulphenamide80EPDM / EVA
LUVOMAXX® MBS GR 80granulesbenzothiazyl-2-sulphenmorpholide80EPDM / EVA
LUVOMAXX® TBBS GR 80granulesN-tert butyl-2-benzothiazyl-sulphenamide80EPDM / EVA
Thiazole
LUVOMAXX® MBT GR 80granules2-mercaptobenzothiazole80EPDM / EVA
LUVOMAXX® MBTS GR 75granulesdibenzothiazyldisulphide75EPDM / EVA
LUVOMAXX® ZMBT GR 80granuleszinc salt of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole80EPDM / EVA
Dithiocarbamate
LUVOMAXX® ZDBC GR 80granuleszinc dibutyl dithiocarbamate80EPDM / EVA
LUVOMAXX® ZDEC GR 80granuleszinc diethyl dithiocarbamate80EPDM / EVA
LUVOMAXX® ZBEC GR 80granuleszinc dibenzyl dithiocarbamate80EPDM / EVA
Guanidines
LUVOMAXX® DPG GR 80granulesdiphenylguanidine80EPDM / EVA
LUVOMAXX® DOTG GR 70granulesdi-o-tolylguanidine70EPDM / EVA
Dithiophosphates
LUVOMAXX® ZDTP GR 50granuleszinc dialkyl dithiophosphate50EPDM / EVA
Thiurams
LUVOMAXX® DPTT GR 70granulesdipentamethylenethiuram tetrasulphide70EPDM / EVA
LUVOMAXX® TBzTD GR 70granulestetrabenzylthiuram disulphide70EPDM / EVA
LUVOMAXX® TMTD GR 80granulestetramethylthiuram disulphide80EPDM / EVA
LUVOMAXX® TMTM GR 80granulestetramethylthiuram monosulphide80EPDM / EVA
Thioureas
LUVOMAXX® ETU GR 80granulesN-N'- ethylene thiourea80EPDM / EVA
LUVOMAXX® DETU GR 80granulesN-N'-diethyl thiourea80EPDM / EVA
Sulphur donors
LUVOMAXX® CLD GR 80granulescaprolactam disulphide80EPDM / EVA
LUVOMAXX® DTDM GR 70granules4,4’-dithiodimorpholine70EPDM / EVA
Amine accelerators
LUVOMAXX® HMT GR 80granuleshexamethylene tetramine80EPDM / EVA
polymer-bound-preparations.pdf

Dry liquid preparations

ProductAppearanceActive ingredientContent
(% m/m)
Carrier
LUVOMAXX® AS 100 DL 70
pale yellow powderdiisopropyl xanthogene polysulfide70silica
LUVOMAXX® SafeCure CA
white powdercyclic diamine60silica
LUVOMAXX® ZDTP DL 73
white powderzinc dialkyl dithiophosphate73silica
dry-liquid-preparations.pdf

Pure substances

ProductAppearanceActive ingredientPurity
(% m/m)
Viscosity
(mPas)
LUVOMAXX® 1,4 BDMAclear liquid1,4-butanediol dimethacrylate906.5
LUVOMAXX® EDMAclear liquid1,2-ethanediol dimethacrylate986
LUVOMAXX® HMDC OCwhite powderhexamethylenediamine carbamate99n.a.
LUVOMAXX® TEDMAclear liquidtriethyleneglycol dimethacrylate9510.5
LUVOMAXX® TMPTclear liquidtrimethylolpropane trimethacrylate9045
LUVOMAXX® TACoff-white solid or liquidtriallylcyanurate98solid at
room temp.
LUVOMAXX® TAICoff-white solid or liquidtriallyl isocyanurate98semi-crystalline at room temp.
pure-substances.pdf

Mineral-oil-bound preparations

ProductAppearanceActive ingredientContent
(% m/m)
Carrier
LUVOMAXX® HMDC OC
white powderhexamethylenediamine carbamate90plasticizer
LUVOMAXX® K-CDO 65
dark brown paste1,4-quinone dioxime65mineral oil
mineral-oil-bound-preparations.pdf

Dry liquid preparations

ProductAppearanceActive ingredientContent
(% m/m)
Carrier
LUVOMAXX® BDMA DL 75 C
light-grey powder1,4-butanediol dimethacrylate75Ca silicate
LUVOMAXX® EDMA DL 70
white powder1,2-ethanediol dimethacrylate70silica
LUVOMAXX® EDMA DL 75 C
light-grey powder1,2-ethanediol dimethacrylate75Ca silicate
LUVOMAXX® TAC DL 50
white powdertriallylcyanurate50silica
LUVOMAXX® TAC DL 70
white powdertriallylcyanurate70silica
LUVOMAXX® TAIC DL 50
white powdertriallyl isocyanurate50silica
LUVOMAXX® TAIC DL 70
white powdertriallyl isocyanurate70silica
LUVOMAXX® TAIC DL 70 C
light-grey powdertriallyl isocyanurate70Ca silicate
LUVOMAXX® TMPT DL 70
white powdertrimethylolpropane trimethacrylate70silica
LUVOMAXX® TMPT DL 75 C
light-grey powdertrimethylolpropane trimethacrylate75Ca silicate
LUVOMAXX® TMPT SR DL
white powdertrimethylolpropane trimethacrylate with scorch retarder70silica
dry-liquid-preparations.pdf

Polymer-bound preparations

ProductAppearanceActive ingredientContent
(% m/m)
Binder
LUVOMAXX®
HMDC GR 70 AEM
granuleshexamethylendiamine carbamate70AEM
LUVOMAXX®
TAC WB 50 E
granulestriallylcyanurate50EVA with inert mineral additive
polymer-bound-preparations.pdf

Pure substances

ProductAppearanceActive ingredientTotal sulphur cont. (%)Density (g/cm³)Avg. sulphur chain length
LUVOMAXX® TESPT
yellow liquidbis-[3-(triethoxysilyl)-propyl]-tetrasulphane22.71.093.75
LUVOMAXX® TESPD
yellow liquidbis-[3-(triethoxysilyl)-propyl]-disulphane14Disulphane-
Content
(mol%):
85
2.2
LUVOMAXX® TESPD/B
yellow liquidbis-[3-(triethoxysilyl)-propyl]-disulphane15752.3
pure-substances.pdf
ProductAppearanceActive ingredientBoiling point
[°C(hPa)]
Density (g/cm³)
LUVOMAXX® Aminosilclear liquid3-aminopropyl triethoxy-silane69
(4)
0.96
LUVOMAXX® Aminosil Mclear liquid3-aminopropyl-trimethoxy-silane194
(1013)
1.02
LUVOMAXX® Aminosil MMOclear liquid3-aminopropyl methyl- dimethoxysilane200
(1013)
0.95
LUVOMAXX® Aminosil EDAclear liquidN-(2-aminoethyl)-3-amino-propyl trimethoxysilane147
(16)
1.02
LUVOMAXX® Mercaptosilclear liquid3- mercaptopropyl-trimethoxysilane85
(4)
1.07
LUVOMAXX® Methasilclear liquid3- methacryloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane205
(1013)
1.05
LUVOMAXX® Epoxysilclear liquid3-glycidyloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane90
(1)
1.06
LUVOMAXX® Octasilclear liquidn-octyl triethoxysilane84
(0.5 mm Hg)
0.88
LUVOMAXX® Alkylsilan C12clear liquidn-dodecyl triethoxysilane125
(1.8 mm Hg)
0.89
LUVOMAXX® OVMSclear liquidvinyl-functional oligosiloxanen.a.1.0
LUVOMAXX® Vinylosil T 101clear liquidvinyl-functional organosilane (VTMOEO)110
(3)
1.03
LUVOMAXX® Vinylosil T 102
clear liquidvinyl-functional organosilane (VTEO)158
(1013)
0.92
LUVOMAXX® Vinylosil T 103
clear liquidvinyl-functional organosilane (VTMO)123
(1013)
0.95
pure-substances.pdf

Dry liquid preparations

ProductAppearanceActive ingredientContent (% m/m)Carrier
LUVOMAXX® AMEO DL 70white powder3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane70silica
LUVOMAXX® GLYMO DL 70white powder3-glycidyloxypropyl trimethoxysilane70silica
LUVOMAXX® MTMO DL 70white powder3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane70silica
LUVOMAXX® OVMS DL 70Clight-grey powdervinyl-functional oligosiloxane70Ca silicate
LUVOMAXX® TESPT DL 50/Lwhite powderbis-[3-(triethoxysilyl)-propyl]-tetrasulfane50silica
(BET: 125m²/g)
LUVOMAXX® TESPT DL 70 Clight yellow powderbis-[3-(triethoxysilyl)-propyl]-tetrasulfane70Ca silicate
LUVOMAXX® VTMO DL 70white powdervinyl trimethoxysilane70silica
LUVOMAXX® VTMOEO DL 50 Clight-grey powdervinyl-tris-(2-methoxyethoxy)-silane50Ca silicate
LUVOMAXX® VTMOEO DL 70 Clight-grey powdervinyl-tris-(2-methoxyethoxy)-silane70Ca silicate
dry-liquid-preparations.pdf

Carbon-black-bound preparations

ProductAppearanceActive ingredientContent
(% m/m)
Carrier
LUVOMAXX® 64B/R
black pelletsbis-[3-(triethoxysilyl)-propyl]-
disulphane, TESPD / B
50carbon black
N-330
LUVOMAXX® R Si-B
black pelletsbis-[3-(triethoxysilyl)-propyl]-
tetrasulphane, TESPT
50carbon black
N-330
carbon-black-bound-preparations.pdf

Phenol-formaldehyde resins

ProductAppearanceActive ingredientSoftening point
(°C)
Application
LUVOMAXX® PN 160brown granulesalkyl modified
phenol-formaldehyde resin
101 – 113reinforcement
LUVOMAXX® PN 320brown granulesnon modified
phenol-formaldehyde resin
108 – 120reinforcement
LUVOMAXX® PN 760brown granulesmodified phenol-formaldehyde resin system93 – 106rubber to metal adhesion
LUVOMAXX® VN 1132brown granulesspecific modified
phenol-formaldehyde resin
115 – 145reinforcement
LUVOMAXX® PN 218brown granulesmodified phenol resin100tackifying
phenol-formaldehyde-resins.pdf

Resin curatives

ProductAppearanceActive ingredientContent
(% m/m)
Carrier
LUVOMAXX® HM3 DL 72 C
powderoligomeric hexamethoxymethylol-melamine72Ca silicate
LUVOMAXX® HM3 DL 65
powderoligomeric hexamethoxymethylol- melamine65silica
LUVOMAXX® HMT GR 80
granuleshexamethylene tetramine80EPDM / EVA
resin-curatives.pdf

Pure substances

LUVOMAG® Magnesium Oxide Powders

ProductMgO
(%)
CaO
(%)
Fe
(%)
BET surface area
(m²/g)
Bulk density
(g/l)
LUVOMAG® M H30
98.00.60.0240220
LUVOMAG® M 045
98.00.80.0955360
LUVOMAG® M 072
97.10.70.0470420
LUVOMAG® M 075
97.10.70.04100420
LUVOMAG® M 047
98.50.70.1110370
LUVOMAG® M 044
98.50.70.1140370
LUVOMAG® M 074
98.50.60.04145550
MgO N 50
98.00.60.02150220

 

LUVOMAG® Magnesium Carbonate

ProductMgO
(%)
CaO
(%)
Fe
(%)
BET aurface area
(m²/g)
Bulk density
(g/l)
LUVOMAG® C 013
43.00.50.003n.a.120
LUVOMAG® C 015
42.00.30.02n.a.500

 

LUVOMAG® Magnesium Hydroxide

ProductMgO
(%)
CaO
(%)
Fe
(%)
BET surface area
(m²/g)
Bulk density
(g/l)
LUVOMAG® H 002
98.00.50.04n.a.420
LUVOMAG® H 010
99.80.070.002n.a.310
LUVOMAG® H 012
97.80.40.01n.a.600
pure-substances.pdf

Other metal oxides

ProductAppearanceDescriptionContent
min (%)
BET surface area
(m²/g)
Density
(g/cm3)
LUVOMAXX® TiO2 R996
white powdertitanium dioxide; filler, white pigment93n.a.4.2
LUVOMAXX® ZnO BP
white powderhigh purity zinc oxide; vulcanization activator99.965.6
other-metal-oxides.pdf

Polymer-bound preparations

ProductAppearanceActive ingredientContent
(% m/m)
Carrier
LUVOMAXX® ZnO GR 80granuleshigh-purity zinc oxide ZnO BP80EPDM / EVA
polymer-bound-preparations.pdf

Mineral-oil-bound preparations

ProductAppearanceActive ingredientContent
(% m/m)
Carrier
LUVOMAG® 270
barsactive magnesium oxide70organic plasticizer
LUVOMAG® 280
barsactive magnesium oxide80organic plasticizer
LUVOMAG® 290
barsactive magnesium oxide75organic plasticizer
LUVOMAG® 300
barsactive magnesium oxide60organic plasticizer
LUVOMAXX® ZnO EXTRA
light-grey barszinc oxide red-seal88emulsifying plasticizer
mineral-oil-bound-preparations.pdf

Dry liquid preparations

ProductAppearanceActive ingredientContent
(% m/m)
Carrier
LUVOMAXX® ODOR C DL70
white powdercherry-odorant70silica
LUVOMAXX® ODOR R/3
white powderreactive odorant, mercaptane scavenger70silica
LUVOMAXX® ODOR V DL 70
white powdervanilla-odorant70silica
dry-liquid-preparations.pdf

Dry liquid preparations

ProductAppearanceActive ingredientContent
(% m/m)
Carrier
     
LUVOMAXX® FH DL 72light yellow powderaromatic polyether (xylene-formaldehyde condensate)72silica
LUVOMAXX® LNBR 1312 DL 72light-grey powderliquid NBR-rubber with 28% rel. ACN content72silica
LUVOMAXX® PLCT DL 70pale-yellow powderliquid cumarone resin70silica
LUVOMAXX® TEA DL 50white powdertriethanolamine with dispersing agent60silica
LUVOMAXX® TP 90 B DL 72 Clight-grey powderhexaoxatricosane, oligoether72Ca silicate
dry-liquid-preparations.pdf

Pure substances

ProductAppearanceActive ingredientGas yield
(ml/g)
Decomp.
temperature (°C)
LUVOMAXX® AZ – C1
yellow powderazodicarbonamide, avg. ps 4 μm220200
LUVOMAXX® AZ F-C2
yellow powderazodicarbonamide, avg. ps 16 μm220200
LUVOPOR® OB Pulver
white powder4,4’-oxybis (benzene sulphonylhydrazide)150160
LUVOMAXX® OBSH 3
white powder4,4’-oxybis (benzene sulphonylhydrazide)150160
LUVOPOR® TSH Pulver
white powdertoluene sulphonylhydrazide115135
pure-substances.pdf

Powder blends

ProductAppearanceActive ingredientGas yield
(ml/g)
Decomp. temperature (°C)
LUVOPOR® AT 6100yellow powdersystem, based on azodicarbonamide280150
LUVOPOR® 9509yellow powderZnO-activated azodicarbonamide165190
powder-blends.pdf

Polymer-bound preparations

ProductAppearanceActive ingredientGas yield
(ml/g)
Decomp. temperature
(°C)
Carrier
LUVOMAXX® AZ GR
yellow granulesazodicarbonamide220200EPM
LUVOMAXX® OB GR
white granules4,4’-oxybis (benzene sulfonyl- hydrazide)100160EPM
polymer-bound-preparations.pdf

Mineral-oil-bound preparations

ProductAppearanceActive ingredientGas yield
(ml/g)
Decomp. temperature
(°C)
Carrier
LUVOPOR® AT 6180
yellow powderazodicarbonamide and toluene sulphonyl hydrazide, 80%170150mineral oil
LUVOPOR® OB Paste
white powder4,4’-oxybis(benzene-
sulphonylhydrazide), 80%
125150mineral oil
LUVOMAXX® OBSH OC 80
white powder4,4'-oxybis(benzol-
sulphohydrazide), 80%
125150mineral oil
LUVOPOR® TSH-Paste
white powdertoluene sulphonylhydrazide, 75%110140mineral oil
LUVOPOR® 9259
light yellow powderexothermic/endothermic blowing agent system, 80 %165135mineral oil
LUVOPOR® 9326
yellow powderazodicarbonamide, 95%280200mineral oil
LUVOPOR® 9353
yellow powdermodified azodicarbonamide, 75.5%210200mineral oil
LUVOPOR® 9382
yellow powderazodicarbonamide, 80%240195mineral oil
mineral-oil-bound-preparations.pdf

Epoxy resins

Dry liquid preparations

ProductAppearanceActive ingredientContent
(% m/m)
Carrier
LUVOMAXX® LER 828 DL 60off-white powderliquid epoxy resin Epikote 828 curing agent for ACM, CSM60silica
dry-liquid-preparations.pdf

Sulphurs

Polymer-bound preparations

ProductAppearanceActive ingredientContent
(% m/m)
Carrier
LUVOMAXX® S GR 80
granulessoluble sulphur80EPDM / EVA
LUVOMAXX® S-IS GR 75
granulesblend of insoluble sulphur and soluble sulphur75EPDM / EVA
polymer-bound-preparations.pdf

Mineral-oil-bound preparations

ProductAppearanceActive ingredientContent
(% m/m)
Binder
LUVOMAXX® IS OC 80
powderinsoluble sulphur80naphthenic oil
LUVOMAXX® IS OC 90
powderinsoluble sulphur90naphthenic oil
mineral-oil-bound-preparations.pdf

Pure substances

ProductAppearanceActive ingredientMelting point, onset (°C)
LUVOMAXX® BSA
off-white powderN-phenyl-N-(trichloromethyl-sulfenyl)- benzene sulphonamide105
LUVOMAXX® CTPI
white powderN-cyclohexyl thiophthalimide90
LUVOMAXX® CTPI Pellets
white granulesN-cyclohexyl thiophthalimide90
LUVOMAXX® PSA - F
white flakesphthalic acid anhydride130
LUVOMAXX® SA
white powdersalicylic acid anhydride158
pure-substances.pdf

Polymer-bound preparations

ProductAppearanceActive ingredientContent
(% m/m)
Carrier
LUVOMAXX® CTPI GR 50
granulesN-cyclohexyl thiophthalimide50EPDM / EVA
LUVOMAXX® BSA GR 80
granulesN-phenyl-N-(trichloromethyl-sulphenyl)- benzene sulphonamide80EPDM / EVA
polymer-bound-preparations.pdf